By George Blyn
In a constructing economic system, agriculture must never in basic terms supply for a becoming population, but in addition produce a surplus for funding. For an historic, custom-dominated land like India, how does agriculture try and meet those calls for? during this publication, the industrial heritage of India's agriculture and the level of its improvement, from 1891 to independence (1947), is heavily and authoritatively tested in a research of output, acreage, and yield consistent with acre for the eighteen plants that represent so much of India's agriculture.
The nature of switch for every of those eighteen plants, and for the foodgrain, nonfoodgrain, and all-crop teams is defined and analyzed for the fifty-six-year interval as an entire, in addition to for shorter classes, for British India and 6 significant areas. Output and exchange info are mixed to figure out traits within the availability of plants. those developments are in comparison with inhabitants figures to point alterations in India's welfare. to give an explanation for the developments in acre productiveness, shut scrutiny is given to adjustments m the composition of output, depth of cultivation, agricultural know-how, and actual environment.
An wide therapy of the methodological difficulties encountered in assembling enough crop info and statistical measurements precedes the research of agricultural improvement. a correct account needs to stability the multitude of variables eager about the complicated process wherein agricultural details was once compiled and evaluated: the reliability of the village recorders, the alterations in boundary traces and the ensuing adjustments in documents, the impression of weather and international markets, in addition to the bigger styles of heritage and nature, conflict and catastrophe.
The finished Appendix contains, between different resource fabrics, the once a year info for person vegetation and crop aggregates and their pattern charges for person a long time. The textual content includes a variety of tables, charts, and maps.
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Additional resources for Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, Availability, and Productivity
The blanks in the larger provinces for groundnut, jute, and tea are examples of this. Omissions for Ajmer-Merwara, Coorg, and Delhi are of little significance since these provinces were very small. Wherever there was unreported output, however, it is. accounted for in the estimates of Chapter III. a. The G011ernment Estimating Method and Its Scope for Error and Bias The reliability of Esfimates for the crops and regions which were covered in the reports is examined in the following sec- 44 AGRICULTURAL TRENDS IN INDIA, 1891-1947 tions.
P. 146. 7. "Thomas and Sastry, op. , p. 89. Professor Thomas believed that "... the errors were more or less systematic ... " '"As believed by Dr. V. Panse, cited in Mukerji, op. cit:, p. 64. NATURE OF CROP DATA 55 would give the measured trend a downward bias. : century period, an error distribution of this type appears quite unlikely. In a given ten year period, this type of bias in trend could be large, but in an average of ten such short periods the effect can be expected to be much reduced.
Ap pendix Table 3A gives the adjusted series and special notes for each crop. The adjustments may be divided into two groups: the minor adjustments have relatively little effect ·on trends and the methods of adjustment presented no large> difficulties. The major adjustments'havc;. markec:J. effects on the series, mostly during the first twenty years. Great difficultie s were encoun tered in making many 'of these adjustments. 1. 1 Inclusion of minor producing districfs. Estim ates' notes - 57 58 AGRICULTURAL TRENDS IN INDIA, 1891-1947 state that up to 1912/13 only 'certain major producing dis tricts within the provinces were included in some of the crop reports.