By Noenoe K. Silva
Read or Download Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism (American Encounters/Global Interactions) PDF
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Additional resources for Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism (American Encounters/Global Interactions)
Should a famine arise, the Ali ¿i Nui was held at fault and deposed. . Should an Ali ¿i Nui be stingy and cruel to the commoners . . he or she would cease to be pono, lose favor with the Akua and be struck down, usually by the people. . ’’∞≠∞ Land tenure was the central feature of this system of political and social relationships based on obligations as well as bonds of a√ection. When a new island or district ruler, an ali¿i ¿ai moku, came into o≈ce, he or she would appoint konohiki, who were also ali¿i, as administrators over the large district areas called kalana and ahupua¿a.
Kamehameha himself had inherited K¯uk¯a¿ilimoku when Kalani¿¯opu¿u died, leaving the reign to his son, Kiwala¿¯o. ∑≠ Kamehameha had been grooming Liholiho since childhood to take over his rule, but it is possible that he observed that the young man might falter, and so in e√ect arranged for Kekuaokalani as a backup. If Liholiho ruled in a pono way, Kekuaokalani would be loyal and all would be well. If not, then Kekuaokalani, if he took care of the akua and thus behaved in pono ways, would take over the rule.
From their inability to understand and dispel the disease, guilt was born into them. ∂∂ Napoleon writes that in the trauma, confusion, and fear, the Yup¿ik ‘‘survivors readily followed the white missionaries and school teachers . . ’’∂∏ A. W. ’’∂Ω Like the Yup¿ik, the Kanaka ¿Oiwi Hawai¿i were forever changed by the horriﬁc experience of mass death. ¿ai noa The ¿ai kapu (eating taboos) was a system of rules that speciﬁed that men do all the cooking, that men and women eat separately, and that certain foods, especially the kino lau (many physical forms) of certain male gods, be kapu to women.