By Charles H. Feinstein
Charles Feinstein surveys years of South African monetary historical past from the years previous eu settlements in 1652 via to the post-Apartheid period. Following the early part of sluggish progress, he charts the transformation of the economic climate as a result discovery of diamonds and gold within the 1870s, and the fast upward push of within the wartime years. eventually, emphasizing the methods during which the black inhabitants used to be disadvantaged of land, and triggered to provide hard work for white farms, mines and factories, Feinstein records the creation of apartheid after 1948, and its outcomes for monetary functionality,
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Extra resources for An Economic History of South Africa: Conquest, Discrimination, and Development (Ellen McArthur Lectures)
The traditional grain crops were millet and sorghum, and these staple grains restricted them to the region of summer rainfall. 13 The other group were the Sotho (using the term in a broad sense to include also those known as Tswana and Pedi). They migrated into the 12 13 The three other major groups among the Bantu speakers were the Tsonga, who live chiefly in present-day Mozambique, the Shona peoples of southern Zimbabwe (Mashonaland), and the Herero in Namibia. The division is not static but runs roughly along a line extending north and west from the vicinity of Port Elizabeth in the south to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean north of the border with Namibia.
They were also skilled workers in wood and ivory, producing utensils, handles for weapons and implements, and ornaments. Women made clay pots, baskets, and mats. These African subsistence economies were basically self-sufficient and were viable as long as adequate land was available. The people were skilled in a range of crafts and had adapted very intelligently to the hazards of their environment. They enjoyed a decent standard of living, with a healthy diet including milk from cattle and goats, porridge and beer from corn, and meat, which was mostly obtained by hunting the abundant supply of animals in the wild.
There were no individual or family titles to land, but stock was owned by individual households, not communally, and there was considerable differentiation, with wealthy chiefs and headmen owning large herds while many others had no stock. The men of such poor households might, however, be engaged to care for part of the herd of wealthy stock-owners, and be rewarded for their labour by being allowed to take the milk. The Khoikhoi did not develop arable farming, because the hot, dry summer months of this winter rainfall zone were unsuitable for the indigenous grains, millet, and sorghum.