Animal ecology by S. Charles Kendeigh

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By S. Charles Kendeigh

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These fish also upon the habitat by stirring up the bottom, from which they derive organic matter, thereby greatly in- that By influence is meant efTect upon the abundance, health, and activities of other organisms in the community but not species. Influence to the extent of directly is excluding conspicuously expressed through may be effected through reactions as well. Insects may partially or wholly defoliate a tree a pack of wolves may diminish a population of deer over winter squirrels may bury acorns and nuts coactions, but it ; ; react and thereby aid germination of them parasitic or poisonous plants may lower the vigor or destroy the creasing the turbidity of the water.

And t/eoloc/ic and their resultant seres are A is and geoscres. Produrtivin come is continues until a climax or Biotic succession is brought about by forces inherent within the community and in the activities and animals themselves. The most important of these activities are the organismal reactions and coactions that produce modifications in the of the plants iiabitat and interrelations between species. Important reactions involve filling in of ponds with plant and animal remains, the addition of organic nutrients to soil, and the reduction in light intensity by increasing density of plant growth.

The biotic community A basis for classifying species community. the to fidelity A is species is exclusive it occurs only in a single area, habitat, or community characteristic (selective, preferential) when it is abundant in one area or community but also ocand ubiquitous curs in small numbers elsewhere (indifferent) when it is found more or less equably distributed in a wide variety of communities. The terms given in parentheses are synonyms used by plant ecologists (Braun-Blanquet 1932). Exclusive species are often rare and of little importance in the dynamics of a community, but when they are con- when ; ; spicuous they often The make is units.

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